Standards for public agencies

2020 Edition

Juvenile Justice Case Management Services (PA-JJCM) 2: Personnel

Program personnel have the competency and support needed to provide services and meet the needs of youth.


Competency can be demonstrated through education, training, or experience. Support can be provided through supervision or other learning activities to improve understanding or skill development in specific areas.
2020 Edition




Juvenile Justice Case Management Services coordinate the services and supervision that can help youth address problems and develop the attitudes and skills needed to make responsible choices, avoid negative behaviors, and become productive, connected, and law-abiding members of their communities.
Full Implementation, Outstanding Performance
A rating of (1) indicates that the agency's practices fully meet the standard and reflect a high level of capacity.  
  • All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, with rare or no exceptions: exceptions do not impact service quality or agency performance. 
Substantial Implementation, Good Performance
A rating of (2) indicates that an agency's infrastructure and practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement.
  • The majority of the standards requirements have been met and the basic framework required by the standard has been implemented. 
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality or agency performance.

Partial Implementation, Concerning Performance
A rating of (3) indicates that the agency's observed infrastructure and/or practices require significant improvement.  

  • The agency has not implemented the basic framework of the standard but instead has in place only part of this framework.  
  • Omissions or exceptions to the practices outlined in the standard occur regularly, or practices are implemented in a cursory or haphazard manner.  
  • Service quality or agency functioning may be compromised.  
  • Capacity is at a basic level.
Unsatisfactory Implementation or Performance
A rating of (4) indicates that implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all.  
  • The agency’s observed service delivery infrastructure and practices are weak or non-existent; or show signs of neglect, stagnation, or deterioration.
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Table of contents of training curricula
  • Procedures or other documentation relevant to continuity of care and case assignment
  • Sample job descriptions from across relevant job categories
  • Documentation tracking staff completion of required trainings and/or competencies
  • Training curricula
  • Caseload size requirements set by policy, regulation, or contract, when applicable
  • Documentation of current caseload size per worker
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
  • Review personnel files

PA-JJCM 2.01

Direct service personnel are qualified by a bachelor's degree in a social or human service field, and experience working with youth.

PA-JJCM 2.02

Supervisors are qualified by:
  1. an advanced degree in a social or human service field; or
  2. a bachelor’s degree in a social or human service field and at least two years’ experience working with youth.

PA-JJCM 2.03

All direct service personnel are trained on, or demonstrate competency in:
  1. understanding youth development;
  2. assessing risks and safety;
  3. recognizing and responding to needs, including needs related to health, mental health, trauma, and substance use; 
  4. providing services in a culturally competent manner that considers gender and gender identity, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, developmental level, disability, and other relevant characteristics; and 
  5. understanding the different organizations, agencies, and systems likely to serve or encounter youth involved with the juvenile justice system.

PA-JJCM 2.04

The agency minimizes the number of workers assigned to youth over the course of their contact with the organization by:
  1. assigning a worker at intake or early in the contact; and
  2. avoiding the arbitrary or indiscriminate reassignment of direct service personnel.

PA-JJCM 2.05

Caseloads support the achievement of youth outcomes, are regularly reviewed, and generally do not exceed:
  1. 12 to 15 youth for high-intensity cases;
  2. 35 youth for medium-intensity cases; and 
  3. 40 to 50 youth for low-intensity cases. 


New personnel should not carry independent caseloads prior to the completion of training.
Examples: Factors that may be considered when determining caseloads include, but are not limited to:
  1. the qualifications, competencies, and experience of the worker, including the level of supervision needed;
  2. whether youth receive services from multiple team members or professionals, including collaborating service providers;
  3. case complexity and circumstances, including travel time, the intensity of youths’ risks and needs, and the level of supervision required;
  4. case status, including progress toward achievement of desired outcomes;
  5. the work and time required to accomplish assigned tasks and job responsibilities; and
  6. service volume.