Standards for public agencies

2020 Edition

Case Management (PA-CM) 2: Personnel

Case management personnel have the competency and support needed to access, coordinate, and provide services and meet the needs of individuals and families.


Competency can be demonstrated through education, training, or experience. Support can be provided through supervision or other learning activities to improve understanding or skill development in specific areas.
2020 Edition

Currently viewing: CASE MANAGEMENT (PA-CM)



Individuals and families who receive Case Management services access and use resources and supports that build on their strengths and meet their service needs.
Full Implementation, Outstanding Performance
A rating of (1) indicates that the agency's practices fully meet the standard and reflect a high level of capacity.  
  • All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, with rare or no exceptions: exceptions do not impact service quality or agency performance. 
Substantial Implementation, Good Performance
A rating of (2) indicates that an agency's infrastructure and practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement.
  • The majority of the standards requirements have been met and the basic framework required by the standard has been implemented. 
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality or agency performance.

Partial Implementation, Concerning Performance
A rating of (3) indicates that the agency's observed infrastructure and/or practices require significant improvement.  

  • The agency has not implemented the basic framework of the standard but instead has in place only part of this framework.  
  • Omissions or exceptions to the practices outlined in the standard occur regularly, or practices are implemented in a cursory or haphazard manner.  
  • Service quality or agency functioning may be compromised.  
  • Capacity is at a basic level.
Unsatisfactory Implementation or Performance
A rating of (4) indicates that implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all.  
  • The agency’s observed service delivery infrastructure and practices are weak or non-existent; or show signs of neglect, stagnation, or deterioration.
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Table of contents of training curricula
  • Procedures or other documentation relevant to continuity of care and case assignment
  • Sample job descriptions from across relevant job categories
  • Documentation tracking staff completion of required trainings and/or competencies
  • Training curricula
  • Caseload size requirements set by policy, regulation, or contract, when applicable
  • Documentation of current caseload size per worker
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
  • Review personnel files


PA-CM 2.01

Case managers are qualified by:
  1. a bachelor’s degree in a human service field;
  2. case management certification; or
  3. a bachelor’s degree in a field other than a human service, with appropriate experience.


PA-CM 2.02

Supervisors of case managers are qualified by:
  1. an advanced degree in social work or a comparable human service field and a minimum of two years’ experience in direct services or case management;
  2. a bachelor’s degree in a human service field and four years' experience in direct services or case management; and/or
  3. certification, registration, or a license to practice in case management and four years' experience in direct services or case management.


PA-CM 2.03

Case managers receive training on, or demonstrate competency in, the following topics:
  1. coordinating services as part of a team;
  2. linking service recipients, and making referrals to, community services; and
  3. knowledge of public assistance programs, eligibility requirements, and benefits.


PA-CM 2.04

The agency maintains service continuity for individuals and families by:
  1. assigning a worker early in the contact, when appropriate; and
  2. minimizing the number of workers assigned to persons served over the course of their contact with the agency.


PA-CM 2.05

Caseload sizes are sufficiently small to permit case managers to respond flexibly to differing service needs of individuals and families, including frequency of contact, and to support the achievement of client outcomes.
Examples: Factors that may be considered when determining employee workloads include, but are not limited to:
  1. the qualifications, competencies, and experience of the worker, including the level of supervision needed;
  2. the work and time required to accomplish assigned tasks and job responsibilities; and
  3. service volume, accounting for assessed level of needs of persons served.