Children and youth who participate in Out-of-School Time programs gain the personal, social, emotional, and educational assets needed to support healthy development, increase well-being, and facilitate a successful transition through childhood and adolescence, and into adulthood.
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
A description of how the program ensures adequate and appropriate supervision at all times, and in all activities
Procedures or plan for providing adequate supervision, including for coverage during breaks, absences, emergencies, etc. (CYD-OST 13.02, 13.03, 13.05)
Staff coverage schedule (for previous quarter)
Procedures for ensuring safety during arrivals and dismissals(CYD-OST 13.04)
Policies and/or procedures governing one-on-one interactions between personnel and children/youth (CYD-OST 13.06)
Children, youth, and families
Observe program supervision at different times of day and during different activities
Observe arrivals and dismissals
Review files of children and youth
The ratio of personnel to children and youth in the program is based on the ages and abilities of children and youth, and is:
between 1:10 and 1:15 when all children and youth are age six and older; and
between 1:8 and 1:12 when the program includes children under age six.
This standard is intended to address the ratio of personnel to children and youth in a program as a whole, rather than for a particular room or group of children and youth. In other words, a program with 60 participants age six and over would need at least four staff members to meet the specified ratio. However, the program would not need to ensure that there was at least one adult present in every group of 15 children and youth. For example, while one adult might be supervising a group of 19 youth doing line dancing, another adult might be helping a group of 11 youth with their homework. However, group ratios should not typically exceed 1:25, for any type of activity.
To be included in the program ratio, staff must be present with, and directly supervising, children and youth. It is also important to note that the ratio must be maintained at all times – if certain staff will periodically leave the program (e.g., to pick up more children), they should not be counted in the ratio. Non-teaching staff, such as front desk staff, custodians, food service personnel, and bus drivers, should also not be counted in the ratio. Volunteers should not be included in this ratio unless they meet personnel qualifications and have a regular, ongoing role at the program, as noted at the beginning of CYD-HR.
It may be appropriate for there to be more personnel, and higher ratios of personnel to children and youth, when personnel work with children and youth with special needs, or with groups that consist entirely of kindergarteners. Please note that when children under age six are mixed in with older children and youth, the more stringent ratio applies (as per element (b) of the standard).
The NAA Standards for Quality School-Age Care, published by the National AfterSchool Association, state that ratios should be between 1:10 and 1:15 for groups of children age six and older, and between 1:8 and 1:12 for groups that include children under age six.
Personnel plan for and provide different levels of supervision according to:
the type, complexity, and level of risk or difficulty of activities; and
the ages, abilities, developmental levels, and needs of children and youth.
Personnel should closely supervise any activities that are potentially risky. Accordingly, ratios of personnel to children and youth should typically be higher, and group sizes smaller, when projects involve potentially dangerous activities or equipment (e.g., cooking, carpentry, leatherworking, swimming, gymnastics, biking, sledding, or skating). In some cases it may be necessary for personnel who supervise potentially risky activities to receive specialized training, as determined by industry safety standards. Extra adults should also be present on field trips that are difficult to supervise (e.g., trips to amusement parks, beaches, ski areas, or campgrounds). It is also wise for ratios to be higher, and group sizes smaller, when children and youth are learning a new or difficult skill.
While groups sizes may be larger for activities such as sports, art, reading, or board games, groups should not typically exceed 30 children/youth, except for activities such as outdoor play, performances, or assemblies (as long as adequate supervision is provided).
The program implements a supervision system that:
enables personnel to know where children and youth are, and what they are doing, at all times;
allows personnel to see and/or hear all the children and youth they are supervising;
includes special provisions for monitoring children and youth who have permission to be out of sight;
protects younger children when they move from place to place or use the restroom;
enables children and youth to access help at all times; and
makes communication possible between different areas within the program site.
Regarding element (b), personnel should position themselves in a way that allows them to watch as many children and youth as possible, and should move around so they can see and/or hear all the children and youth they are supervising. Programs can also ensure facilities are arranged to support supervision by using low barriers between designated spaces to promote visibility, and installing convex mirrors to supplement line-of-sight supervision.
COA recognizes that a program’s system for supervision, and the level of supervision provided, may vary based on the developmental stages and needs of the children and youth served. For example, programs serving younger children might monitor which children are in the restroom, and how long they have been there, by having children put a clothespin by their name and set an egg timer when they leave the room. Conversely, the level of supervision should also respect older youths’ need for independence. Accordingly, a program serving older youth might develop a policy allowing more independence that is worked out with youth, their families, and personnel.
The program ensures safety during arrivals and dismissals by:
working with parents or other appropriate family members to obtain instructions for arrival and dismissal;
establishing a system for monitoring when children and youth arrive, when they leave, and with whom they leave;
developing a system to keep unauthorized people from taking children and youth;
establishing protocols for families or schools to contact the program if children and youth will be arriving late, leaving early, or absent; and
developing procedures that address how to respond if a child or youth is not picked up in a timely manner at dismissal.
Personnel should know when children and youth are supposed to arrive and how children and youth are allowed to depart (including who is allowed to pick up each child or youth), as well as what should be done if an unauthorized person attempts to pick up a child or youth. When questions arise, personnel should contact the school or a responsible adult listed on the emergency form. Programs should ideally keep written records showing who picked up children and youth.
NAThe program only serves older youth who can come and go independently.
There is a plan to provide adequate staff coverage:
when personnel are absent (i.e. due to illness, personal reasons, or professional development);
when personnel leave the room to take a break or retrieve supplies; and
when emergencies or special circumstances arise during the program day.
Emergencies or special circumstances include situations where a child becomes ill, requires separation from the group, needs special supervision or care, or has an emergency, as well as situations where a staff member becomes ill or has an emergency. If one staff member is sufficient to meet the required ratios specified in CYD-OST 13.01, a second adult should be on hand to assist in case an emergency or special circumstance arises. The program can support implementation of this standard by keeping an up-to-date list of adults who are qualified to serve as substitutes.
One-on-one interactions between personnel and children and youth are in public areas visible by at least one other adult.
It is acceptable for a staff member to be alone with a child or youth during brief periods of transition (e.g., while escorting a child from the cafeteria to the computer lab), as long as their whereabouts are communicated to other program personnel.