Children and youth who participate in Out-of-School Time programs gain the personal, social, emotional, and educational assets needed to support healthy development, increase well-being, and facilitate a successful transition through childhood and adolescence, and into adulthood.
Note:Different types of activities will be offered depending on the goals of the program and the ages and interests of program participants, but the expectations addressed in this core concept will typically apply regardless of the type of programming provided. See CA-OST 10 through CA-OST 15 for more information regarding expectations for specific types of activities. When programming does not fall within a category addressed in those core concepts, it will be covered only by the generally-applicable standards included in this core concept.
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
Procedures need strengthening; or
With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
Timeframes are often missed; or
Several client records are missing important information; or
Client participation is inconsistent.
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or
Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.
Sample programming/activity plans for each type of activity offered
Policy for serving children and youth with special needs
Procedures for serving children and youth with special needs
Policy regarding the use of technology
Curricula for previous six months
Programming/activity plans for previous six months
Daily schedules for past month
Documentation demonstrating that children and youth have been involved in developing/evaluating activities and initiatives
Training curricula and/or information on internet safety provided to children, youth, and personnel, if applicable
Interviews may include:
Children, youth, and families
Review files of children and youth (e.g., regarding accommodations for special needs, and permission slips)
Observe program site and activities
Children and youth are engaged in activities that are:
designed to build specific skills and foster the development of positive interests;
based on a curriculum that matches program goals; and
guided by plans that address both the substance and logistics of activities (including learning goals, preparation, timing and transitions, materials, outcomes to look for, and strategies for accommodating the needs of children and youth with differing skills and abilities).
Organizations have the flexibility to determine the type and nature of the curricula they use, and are not required to utilize commercially-developed curricula. However, if staff are responsible for developing the curricula they should have the expertise and paid time they need to do so, as per CA-OST 2.
Examples: The skills to be developed will typically relate to both activity content (e.g., arts, health, literacy) and the interdisciplinary skills that are relevant across content areas, such as skills related to critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity. Out-of-school time programs offer an excellent opportunity to help children and youth develop these “21st century skills” that are so crucial to meeting the demands and challenges of today’s world. It is also important to note that helping children and youth learn to regulate their emotions and behaviour, empathize with others, and strengthen their interpersonal skills, as addressed in CA-OST 5, will underlie and support their ability to develop these skills.
Personnel provide formal or informal instruction that:
helps children and youth understand the goals to be accomplished;
includes models for children and youth to emulate; and
clearly conveys information and directions related to the activity, including the time available for different tasks and any specific steps to be followed, as applicable.
When youth are the drivers of a project this standard may be implemented through a collaborative process that involves personnel and youth working together as partners.
Examples: Children and youth may need models related to both content topics and social-emotional skills, but the type of modelling provided may vary based upon the nature of the activities offered. For example, if youth are engaged in building a robot they might benefit from seeing: (1) the specific technology-related skills needed to build different components of the robot; (2) examples of both robot components and a completed robot; and (3) the self-regulatory skills that enable one to persist through challenging work. In contrast, personnel moderating a different type of activity might model different ways to use specific tools and how to cope with frustrations, but might not provide an example of a finished product so as not to constrain imagination and originality. In addition to conveying directions orally, it may often make sense for personnel to also write down instructions so that children and youth can remember what to do.
Programming is designed to meet the developmental needs of the children and youth the program is designed to serve.
Please note that this standard is intended to address the developmental needs of the general population the program is designed to serve (e.g., kindergarteners, middle schoolers, high schoolers), as opposed to the specific needs of individual children and youth. While the practices addressed in this core concept are important for children and youth of all ages, it is also important to consider the ages/developmental needs of children and youth when implementing these practices.
Examples: Programming can be designed to meet the developmental needs of older youth by, for example, providing opportunities to: (1) have extended interactions with peers, as addressed in CA-OST 5.04 and CA-OST 9.11; (2) make increasingly meaningful choices, as addressed in CA-OST 9.10 and CA-OST 9.17; (3) develop leadership skills, as addressed in CA-OST 9.10; (4) engage in increasingly complex forms of critical thinking and problem solving, as addressed in CA-OST 9.08; (5) provide input regarding program design and implementation, as addressed in CA-OST 9.17; and (6) gain exposure to the new ideas, people, and places that can help them explore their identities and possibilities for the future, as addressed in CA-OST 9.04 and CA-OST 9.15. Older youth may also be better served by programs offering an in-depth focus on a specific area of interest, rather than programs that provide a variety of different activity options (such as those more common for younger children).
The organization provides activities that:
engage children and youth in active learning experiences that facilitate learning by doing;
reflect and support the interests, experiences, and cultures of children and youth;
offer exposure to new ideas, people, and places;
encourage creativity and innovation; and
build upon one another to facilitate a step-by-step approach to learning, when possible.
Regarding element (e) of the standard, COA recognizes that it can be challenging to provide activities that build on each other in a sequential manner if daily attendance is not required. Accordingly, organizations that permit sporadic attendance should provide stand-alone activities, but ensure that the activities are thematically connected so that children and youth are exposed to related concepts over time.
Activities allow sufficient time for both guided and individual practice and skill building, and personnel:
have high expectations regarding what children and youth can accomplish;
emphasize that learning is a process;
encourage children and youth to try new skills and activities and persist through difficulties;
reframe “failure” as an opportunity for learning and improvement; and
emphasize that success is the result of hard work rather than innate ability.
Balancing respect for children and youth’s autonomy with the need to provide adequate support, personnel:
utilize questioning techniques designed to encourage independent thinking and dialogue;
check in to assess understanding, needs, and progress and monitor the level of difficulty presented;
provide balanced and realistic feedback designed to promote improvement;
offer encouragement, assistance, and coaching to support and extend participation and learning, as needed and without taking control; and
vary the approaches used to engage and support children and youth based on their differing personalities, temperaments, learning styles, needs, and abilities.
Examples: Personnel may provide support while respecting autonomy by, for example, asking open-ended questions designed to prompt deeper thinking; showing children and youth how and where to find answers to their questions; demonstrating how complex skills can be broken into smaller steps; and offering suggestions when children and youth face problems they cannot solve by themselves. Personnel may also use a variety of strategies to accommodate diverse needs and abilities, such as substituting equipment if children have difficulty with motor skills.
When children and youth have special needs, the organization:
makes reasonable, respectful accommodations to help them fully participate in the program;
encourages collaboration among personnel, families, and other involved providers to promote consistency in meeting needs; and
ensures they are grouped with peers of the same age range, even if their documented developmental level is different from their chronological age.
Organizations must make reasonable accommodations to their policies, procedures, and practices to support the participation of children and youth with disabilities. Accordingly, when children and youth have special needs organizations should: (1) partner with parents and other involved providers; (2) develop plans for accommodating needs; (3) implement identified accommodations; and (4) adjust plans and accommodations, as needed.
Examples: Appropriate accommodations can include, for example, modifying the physical environment, training personnel to meet needs, or partnering with specialists who can provide guidance or assist children with certain activities.
Examples: While it is important that children and youth learn to share their ideas and contribute to discussions, some children (i.e. introverted children) may find it harder than others to speak up, and may benefit if personnel employ different strategies to help them. For example, when facilitating a group discussion personnel might give children time to process and compose their thoughts before asking them to share, rather than posing a question and then calling on the children who immediately raise their hands to respond. Personnel might also provide opportunities for children to share their thoughts and ideas in writing rather than orally.
Children and youth have opportunities to:
make meaningful choices and decisions; and
assume an appropriate level of responsibility and leadership.
Examples: What constitutes a “meaningful choice” and “an appropriate level of responsibility and leadership” may vary based on the ages and developmental levels of children and youth. Meaningful choice for younger children may include having opportunities to choose among different activities, including selecting what they will do, how they will do it, and with whom. In contrast, older youth may participate in more focused programming and make choices and decisions within the context of one particular activity or project (e.g., deciding the focus of a project, deciding topics within a subject area, deciding group roles, or deciding how to present results). Similarly, while younger children may be responsible for fulfilling daily jobs (e.g., passing out materials, cleaning up activities, or serving food), older youth may assume more significant responsibilities, such as organizing or leading activities.
The needs of individual children and youth may also be relevant to consider. For example, an introverted child might be hesitant to take on a leadership role just for the sake of being a leader, but might be motivated to do so in order to accomplish a goal he is passionate about, and a child with a disability might be able to lead an activity for 15 minutes, but then need a five minute break.
Children and youth have opportunities to work together to achieve shared goals, and personnel facilitate successful collaboration by:
helping children and youth develop skills that support cooperative work;
considering age, developmental level, and skill level when creating groups;
establishing expectations for group norms and participation;
utilizing collaborative learning structures designed to help all children and youth engage, participate, and learn, regardless of their temperaments, needs, or abilities;
monitoring group activity, and providing feedback and assistance as needed; and
encouraging group members to reflect on group functioning.
Examples: Skills needed to facilitate cooperative work include the interpersonal skills addressed in CA-OST 5.07, including treating others with equity and respect; understanding social norms and cues; listening actively and deeply, without interrupting; effectively conveying one’s point of view; and resolving conflicts and disagreements. Helping youth to develop empathy and self-regulatory skills, as addressed in CA-OST 5.05 and CA-OST 5.06, can also support their ability to collaborate successfully with others.
Children and youth have opportunities to participate in ongoing activities or projects that:
involve multiple steps and take place over time;
include an in-depth focus on a particular topic or issue;
enable children and youth to take an active role in setting goals, developing and implementing plans to achieve those goals, and modifying plans and goals, as needed; and
culminate in a presentation or celebration that highlights the accomplishments of children and youth.
NAThe organization does not require regular attendance and thus cannot engage children and youth in ongoing activities or projects.
Examples: The length of projects may vary, especially based on the ages and developmental levels of participating children and youth. Older youth will typically be able to engage in projects that are longer and more complex. Children and youth will ideally also play a role in deciding the focus of projects, though this may vary based on their ages and developmental levels, as well as the nature and design of the program.
Children and youth have opportunities to participate in projects or activities that are designed to encourage civic engagement and foster a generosity of spirit.
Examples: Implementation of this standard may overlap with CA-OST 8.04, regarding opportunities for children and youth to become involved with their communities (e.g., through community service or service learning projects). However, organizations can also foster civic engagement and generosity of spirit in other ways. For example, an organization might expand students’ understanding of civic engagement and citizenship through social studies, and might foster a generosity of spirit by supporting children and youth in reflecting upon how they treat others.
The organization maximizes opportunities to integrate content across topics and activity types.
Examples: Some organizations may run programs that are explicitly designed to integrate content across topics and activity types. For example, programs utilizing a STEAM approach will integrate the arts into science, technology, engineering, and math, and STREAM programs will integrate reading into science, technology, engineering, arts, and math. Other organizations might implement this standard by, for example, establishing overarching themes that encompass the variety of activities provided, developing essential questions that are relevant across activity types, or conducting curriculum mapping to identify areas where there are opportunities to connect and integrate activity content.
Personnel support children and youth in processing and reflecting on their learning and progress by:
providing intentional opportunities for them to express and evaluate their thoughts and feelings about their learning and experiences at the program;
encouraging them to assess their own strengths and progress and set goals for improvement;
helping them make connections between their learning and experiences at the program and outside knowledge, interests, experiences, and goals; and
providing input and perspective to help them interpret and reevaluate their experiences, as needed.
Examples: Ongoing recognition may occur within the context of the feedback and processing addressed in CA-OST 9.05 and OST 9.15.
In order to ensure that programming reflects the needs and interests of program participants, children and youth are encouraged to share their thoughts and ideas regarding program activities, and are involved in developing and evaluating activities and initiatives.
Examples: The extent and nature of children and youths’ involvement may vary based on their ages and developmental levels. For example, while an organization serving younger children may informally assess their needs and interests, older children and youth may complete surveys and/or sit on planning committees. Older youth may also be able to play a larger role in determining the focus of projects and activities.
The needs of individual children and youth may also be relevant to consider when seeking input and involvement. For example, quiet or introverted children may be hesitant to share their thoughts without having time to prepare them, or may be more comfortable sharing their ideas privately or in writing. Similarly, children with disabilities or other special needs may require particular accommodations in order to effectively share their ideas and participate in planning or evaluating activities.
The organization develops and implements a policy regarding the use of technology that:
addresses both program and personal devices;
balances concerns regarding the importance of limiting “screen time” with any program goals that are dependent upon the use of technology (e.g., STEM programming);
ensures safety measures are in place when internet access is offered, including safety training and controls that block access to inappropriate content; and
takes into account any policies or procedures regarding technology usage that are in place at the program’s host, if applicable.