Private Organization Accreditation

Germaine Lawrence is a residential treatment center for girls ages 12-18 with complex behavioral, psychological and learning challenges.   Girls live at our programs while receiving special education, individual, family and group therapy; psychiatric and primary medical care; and a wide variety of therapeutic activities and interventions.


Harry Hunter, MSW, MBA, Ph.D.

Volunteer Roles: Peer Reviewer; Team Leader

Peer Reviewer for the month of January 2013, Dr. Hunter has been volunteering for COA since 2005, conducting five site reviews.
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Youth Justice Case Management Services coordinate the services and supervision that can help youth address problems and develop the attitudes and skills needed to make responsible choices, avoid negative behaviours, and become productive, connected, and law-abiding members of their communities.

CA-YJCM 5: Services and Supports

Youth are linked to services and supports needed to overcome problems, improve behaviours, develop skills, build strengths, promote personal responsibility, and establish pro-social community connections.

Research Note: Although promoting public safety is an important aspect of CA-YJCM services, some literature asserts that programs often rely too heavily upon supervision, and suggests that youth will be more capable of avoiding crime and contributing to society if they are connected to needed supports and services and helped to develop appropriate competencies.

Rating Indicators
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice standards.
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted, however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations (CA-HR 6.02) and training (CA-TS 2.03); or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • A number of client records are missing important information  or
  • Client participation is inconsistent; or
  • One of the Fundamental Practice Standards received a rating of 3 or 4.
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing; or  
  • Two or more Fundamental Practice Standards received a rating of 3 or 4.

Table of Evidence

Self-Study Evidence On-Site Evidence On-Site Activities
    • A description of services
    • Procedures for linking youth to services
    • List of community programs and services and information on how to access them
    • Interview:
      1. Program director
      2. Relevant personnel
      3. Youth served and their families
    • Review case records

  • CA-YJCM 5.01

    Personnel develop positive, respectful relationships with youth, and:

    1. model pro-social behaviours and attitudes;
    2. emphasize personal responsibility and accountability; and
    3. serve as a resource.

    Interpretation: These relationships should be developed in the course of the contacts described in CA-YJCM 6.01.

    Research Note: Some literature emphasises the importance of developing positive interpersonal relationships, and suggests that services are not likely to succeed if youth do not buy into the relationship.

  • CA-YJCM 5.02

    Youth are linked to programs and services needed to achieve goals and objectives identified in their service plans, including, as appropriate:

    1. health services;
    2. mental health and counseling services;
    3. services for substance use conditions;
    4. social and life skills development services;
    5. educational and vocational services;
    6. services for violent offenders; and
    7. services for sex offenders.

  • CA-YJCM 5.03

    Youth are engaged in activities that help them understand the impact of past actions and behaviours, and repair any harm they may have caused.

    Interpretation: These activities may be specified by the court or public authority with jurisdiction over the youth. Options can include, but are not limited to: meaningful community service, restitution, restorative justice conferencing, and victim/offender mediation.

  • CA-YJCM 5.04

    Youth are helped to cultivate positive community connections by identifying:

    1. pro-social recreational and leisure time activities; and
    2. sources of pro-social support, such as mentors, community members, peers, siblings, or other family members.

    Interpretation: “Recreational and leisure time activities” may include, but are not limited to: (1) sports and athletic activities, (2) cultural enrichment activities, and (3) positive youth development clubs.

    Note: Involvement in the activities described in CA-YJCM 5.03 can also facilitate the development of positive community connections.

    Research Note: Literature emphasises the importance of developing pro-social community bonds and relationships.

  • CA-YJCM 5.05

    Youth are connected to services, supports, and activities that are appropriate for and sensitive to their age, developmental level, language, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and past experiences of trauma.

  • CA-YJCM 5.06

    To strengthen the family’s ability to support and supervise youth, the organization connects family members with resources to help them:

    1. meet any unmet service needs;
    2. maintain and strengthen family relationships;
    3. prevent, manage, and resolve family conflicts; and
    4. identify strengths that can help them meet future challenges.

    Note: See the Interpretation to CA-YJCM 3.02.

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